Estimation of Amplification due to soil
Amplification due to soil estimated by
- Amplification recorded on Broad Band Sensor (BBS) for natural earthquakes.
- Shear wave velocity of soil with depth or soil properties.
Soil properties are measured on borehole samples including N value (Soil Strength) by SPT tests or strength from cone penetration test.
Shear wave velocity is measured by
- P-S Logging.
- VS 30 (Shear wave velocity to 30 m depth) by seismic method.
- Micro tremor array measurements.
- Liquefaction potential is measured by water depth (>50 m may not liquefy), type of soil (sands,silt and gravel are liquefied) N-value (> 30 m may not liquefy), tri-axial cyclic test of failure of soil samples under simulation of repeated seismic waves.
- Landslide potential is estimated from slope instability in mountainous area.